Caffeine is naturally present in fresh brewed tea and is therefore naturally present in Milo’s fresh brewed teas. On average, Milo’s Tea contains 28 mg of caffeine per 8 oz. serving, as opposed to an average of 85 mg in brewed coffee and 40 mg in other brewed teas.
The International Food Information Council (IFIC) has created comprehensive brochures regarding Caffeine. The first brochure is “Caffeine and Health” and the second is “Everything You Need to Know About Caffeine”. Both brochures address misconceptions about caffeine and health, and provide science-based information on caffeine and consumption by kids/children and adults, pregnancy, cancer, addiction, breast disease, osteoporosis, and heart disease. Click Here to Download a PDF of “Caffeine and Health” and Click Here to Download “Everything You Need to Know About Caffeine.” Both brochures are excerpted verbatim below:
Caffeine and Health
Caffeine is one of the most comprehensively studied ingredients in the food supply. There is considerable knowledge of this compound, with centuries of safe consumption in foods and beverages. However, some questions and misperceptions about the potential health effects associated with this ingredient still persist, including those centering around heart disease, hydration, addiction, fertility, pregnancy, miscarriage and consumption by children/kids and teens.
What Is Caffeine?
Caffeine is a naturally occurring substance found in the leaves, seeds or fruits of at least 63 plant species worldwide.
What Foods And Beverages Contain Caffeine?
The most commonly known sources of caffeine are coffee, tea, some soft drinks and chocolate. The amount of caffeine in food products varies depending on the serving size, the type of product and preparation method. With teas and coffees, the plant variety also affects caffeine content.
Coffee is the chief source of caffeine in the U.S. An eight-ounce cup of drip-brewed coffee typically has 65-120 milligrams (mg) of caffeine; an eight and one-third ounce energy drink contains between 50-200 mg; an eight-ounce serving of brewed tea has 20-90 mg; caffeinated soft drinks have 30-60 mg per 12 ounce serving; and an ounce of milk chocolate has just 1-15 mg.
How Much Caffeine Do We Consume?
Published data show the per capita consumption level of caffeine for the average adult is approximately 120 mg/day, or a mean intake of 1.73 mg/kg body weight/day. The average child consumes much less—between 14 and 22 mg/day.
For children and young adults, the primary sources of caffeine are tea and soft drinks, while for adults caffeine intake is mostly from coffee.
What constitutes a normal amount of caffeine depends on the individual. Caffeine sensitivity depends on many factors, including the frequency and amount of regular intake, body weight and physical condition.
Numerous studies have shown that moderate amounts of caffeine—about 300 milligrams per day—are safe for most adults. Some individuals may be sensitive to caffeine and will feel effects at smaller doses than do individuals who are less sensitive.
Caffeine can be added or naturally occurring.
Caffeine is a naturally occurring substance found in the leaves, seeds or fruits of more than 60 plants. Foods and beverages derived from coffee beans, cocoa beans, kola nuts and tea leaves are common sources of caffeine.
Caffeine is also added to some foods and beverages for flavor. It contributes to the overall flavor profile of those foods in which it is added.
Caffeine is safe.
In 1958, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classified caffeine as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS). In 1987, the FDA reaffirmed its position that moderate caffeine intake produced no increased risk to health. In addition, both the American Medical Association and the American Cancer Society have statements confirming the safety of moderate caffeine consumption.
Caffeine is not an addictive substance.
Depending on the amount of caffeine ingested, it can be a mild stimulant to the central nervous system. Although caffeine is sometimes characterized as "addictive," moderate caffeine consumption is safe and should not be classified with addictive drugs of abuse. Often, people who say they are "addicted" to caffeine tend to use the term loosely, like saying they are "addicted" to running, working or television.
When regular caffeine consumption is stopped abruptly, some individuals may experience mild symptoms such as headache, fatigue or drowsiness. These effects are usually only temporary and will end in a day or so.
Caffeinated beverages are hydrating.
Caffeinated beverages consumed in moderation can count toward daily water intake, contributing to hydration. The Institute of Medicine’s (IOM) Panel on Dietary Reference Intakes for Electrolytes and Water states, "While consumption of beverages containing caffeine and alcohol have been shown in some studies to have diuretic effects, available information indicates that this may be transient in nature, and that such beverages can contribute to total water intake and thus can be used in meeting recommendations for dietary intake of total water" (Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate, 2003). Thus, the diuretic effect is more than likely compensated for by the fluid in the beverage.
Caffeine in moderation is safe for children.
Research has found no evidence to suggest the use of caffeine at the levels in foods and beverages is harmful. As with all foods and beverages, parents should use common sense in giving their children normal servings of caffeinated foods and beverages.
Consuming caffeine-containing foods and beverages will not cause children to become hyperactive.
There is no evidence to show that caffeine is associated with hyperactive behavior. In fact, most well-conducted scientific studies show no effects of caffeine-containing foods—or any food or beverage, in general—on hyperactivity or attention deficit disorder in children.
Scientific evidence suggests that children are no more sensitive to the effects of caffeine than adults.
Consuming caffeine in moderate amounts during pregnancy is safe.
Most physicians and researchers today agree that it's safe for pregnant women to consume caffeine.
Daily consumption of up to 300 mg/day (approximately two to three 8 oz. cups of brewed coffee) has been shown to have no adverse effects on pregnancy. However, it is wise for pregnant women to monitor their caffeine consumption and talk to their obstetrician or other physician about consuming caffeine during their pregnancy.
Caffeine does not affect a woman's chances of getting pregnant.
The weight of scientific research indicates that moderate caffeine consumption does not affect fertility, or cause adverse health effects in the mother or the child.
Consuming caffeine in moderation is OK while breastfeeding.
Caffeine-containing foods and beverages, in moderation, can be enjoyed while breastfeeding. Studies have shown that although caffeine is passed to the infant through breast milk, the amount is minute and has no effect on the infant.
Both the American Academy of Pediatrics and researchers of a review published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition concluded that moderate consumption of caffeine by nursing mothers will have no effect on the infant.
Fibrocystic Breast Disease (FBD) is not caused or worsened by caffeine consumption.
Fibrocystic breast disease (FBD) is a condition characterized by multiple cysts that can be felt throughout the breast and are usually associated with pain and tenderness. Approximately 50 to 90 percent of women experience symptoms of FBD.
Both the National Cancer Institute and the American Medical Association's Council on Scientific Affairs have stated there is no association between caffeine intake and FBD. In addition, research has shown that caffeine does not cause or worsen the symptoms of fibrocystic breast disease.
Osteoporosis is not caused or worsened by caffeine/coffee consumption.
Osteoporosis is a disease of the bone characterized by a decrease in bone density and the development of weak and brittle bones, which are more prone to fracture. Osteoporosis occurs most frequently in women. Risk factors include inadequate calcium intake, high protein intake, smoking, inadequate exercise, small body frame, low estrogen levels and age. In addition, Caucasian and Asian women are at higher risk for osteoporosis than women of most other ethnic groups.
A recent study of post-menopausal women demonstrated that caffeine intake is not associated with any change in bone density.
Several other recent, well-controlled studies have concluded that consuming moderate amounts of caffeine does not increase a woman's risk of osteoporosis.
Caffeine does not change blood cholesterol.
There is no evidence linking caffeine to changes in blood cholesterol. Consumption of coffee as typically prepared in the U.S. does not affect blood cholesterol levels.
Studies from Scandinavia using boiled, unfiltered coffee (such as that made using a French press or in espresso) have found an adverse effect on blood cholesterol. However, this effect has not been definitively linked to caffeine. This preparation method is also less common in the U.S.
Caffeine does not cause chronic high blood pressure.
Caffeine does not cause chronic hypertension or any persistent increase in blood pressure. Some individuals sensitive to caffeine may experience a slight rise in blood pressure immediately after consuming caffeine, but it usually does not last more than several hours.
Studies show any rise in blood pressure is modest and less than that normally experienced when climbing stairs. However, individuals with high blood pressure should consult their physician about caffeine intake.
Caffeine does not cause increased risk of heart disease.
There have been more than 100 studies that have examined whether a relationship exists between exposure to caffeine and blood pressure, cardiac arrhythmia or coronary heart disease. Most of this research has led to the conclusion that ingestion of moderate amounts of caffeine is not associated with any increase in cardiovascular disease risk. However, individuals with high blood pressure should consult their physician about caffeine intake.
Everything You Need to Know About Caffeine
Whether waking up to the aroma of freshly brewed coffee, enjoying lunch with a refreshingly cold soft drink or relaxing in the evening with a cup of tea, these daily pleasures often have a common ingredient—caffeine.
People have enjoyed foods and beverages containing caffeine for thousands of years. It is one of the most well-studied ingredients in the food supply. Even so, controversy and misperceptions about this food component continue.
- As long ago as 2737 B.C., Chinese Emperor Shen Nung was boiling drinking water when the leaves of a nearby bush fell into the pot, creating a wonderful smelling drink and the first pot of tea.
- Coffee originated in Africa around 575 A.D., where beans were used as money and consumed as food.
- Eleventh century Arabians were known to have coffee beverages.
- While exploring the New World, Spanish conquistadors were treated to a chocolate drink by Aztec Emperor Montezuma in 1519.
- The world's first caffeinated soft drinks were created in the 1880's.
Caffeine And Health
During the past two decades, extensive research has been conducted on the health aspects of caffeine consumption.
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classified caffeine as Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) in 1958. A more recent review "found no evidence to show that the use of caffeine in carbonated beverages would render these products injurious to health."
The American Medical Association (AMA) has a similar position on caffeine's safety, stating that "Moderate tea or coffee drinkers probably need have no concern for their health relative to their caffeine consumption provided other lifestyle habits (diet, alcohol consumption) are moderate, as well."
Most experts agree that moderation and common sense are the keys for consuming caffeine-containing foods and beverages. Moderate caffeine consumption is considered to be about 300 mg. which is equal to 3 cups of coffee, but this depends on the individual and can vary from one to several beverages. Consumers with certain health problems may wish to consult with their physician or health care provider about caffeine consumption.
"Moderate tea or coffee drinkers probably need have no concern for their health relative to their caffeine consumption provided other lifestyle habits (diet, alcohol consumption) are moderate, as well."
-The American Medical Association
People differ greatly in their sensitivity to caffeine; some individuals can drink several cups of coffee, tea or soft drinks within an hour and notice no effects, whereas others may feel stimulating effects after one serving. Caffeine does not accumulate in the bloodstream or body and is normally excreted within several hours following consumption.
Caffeine may increase alertness in tired individuals and enhance performance of certain tasks. Many people find caffeinated beverages can help them stay alert when they work or study. Individual sensitivity and frequency of consumption determine the effect of caffeine on sleep.
National Institutes of Health (NIH) research indicates there is no difference in the way children and adults handle caffeine. These studies have shown that caffeine-containing foods and beverages do not have an effect on hyperactivity or the attention span of children.
Parents should use common sense in deciding how much caffeine-containing foods or beverages they give their children, as with many foods.
The FDA has stated that caffeine does not adversely affect reproduction in humans, although the agency continues to advise pregnant women to consume caffeine in moderation.
Three major studies involving more than 15,000 women found no birth defects associated with caffeine consumption even among the heaviest coffee drinkers. Similarly, other human studies continue to support the conclusion that moderate consumption of caffeine does not predispose expectant mothers to spontaneous abortion or preterm delivery, nor the fetus to low birth weight.
Some studies suggest that high levels of caffeine intake may delay time to conception, but these findings are inconclusive and often inconsistent when other lifestyle variables are considered. Research from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Harvard Medical School and the University of California at Berkeley show that moderate caffeine consumption does not reduce a woman's chance of becoming pregnant.
What Products Contain Caffeine And How Much?Milligrams of Caffeine
Item Typical Range* Coffee (8-oz. cup) Brewed, drip method 85 65-120 Instant 75 60-85 Decaffeinated 3 2-4 Espresso (1 oz. cup) 40 30-50 Teas (8-oz. cup) Brewed, major U.S. brands 40 20-90 Brewed, imported brands 60 25-110 Instant 28 24-31 Iced (8-oz. glass) 25 9-50 Some soft drinks (8 oz.) 24 20-40 Cocoa beverage (8 oz.) 6 3-32 Chocolate milk beverage (8 oz.) 5 2-7 Milk chocolate (1 oz.) 6 1-15 Dark chocolate, semi-sweet (1 oz.) 20 5-35 Baker's chocolate (1 oz.) 26 26 Chocolate-flavored syrup (1 oz.) 4 4
*Due to brewing method, plant vairety, brand, etc.
A 1986 study of 16,600 individuals published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute found no relationship between coffee consumption and cancer risk. The most recent review by the International Agency for Research on Cancer also concluded that data do not support a link between caffeine consumption and cancer in humans.
According to the American Cancer Society, "Available information does not suggest a recommendation against the moderate use of coffee. There is no indication that caffeine, a natural component of both coffee and tea, is a risk factor in human cancer."
The word "addiction" is an old word meaning simply to be devoted or habituated to a practice. People who say they are "addicted" to caffeine tend to use the term loosely, like saying they are "addicted" to chocolate, running, working or television.
According to the World Health Organization, "There is no evidence whatsoever that caffeine use has even remotely comparable physical and social consequences which are associated with serious drugs of abuse." Some sensitive individuals may experience mild, temporary effects, including headache, restlessness and irritability when their daily intake is quickly and substantially altered. Medical experts have long agreed that any discomfort caused by abruptly stopping consumption of caffeine can be avoided by progressively decreasing intake over a few days.
A worldwide investigation of 100,000 deaths due to breast cancer found no relationship between caffeine intake and the development of this disease. Research has also shown that caffeine intake is not related to the development of fibrocystic breast disease (FBD), a condition with benign fibrous lumps in the breast, although caffeine is sometimes thought to aggravate this condition. Both the American Medical Association's Council on Scientific Affairs and the National Cancer Institute published reports stating there is not an association between caffeine intake and the incidence of FBD.
Research has shown that caffeine intake is not a significant risk factor for osteoporosis, particularly in women who consume adequate calcium. A 1994 NIH advisory panel concluded that caffeine has not been found to affect calcium absorption or excretion significantly. Several studies conducted to date show no link between moderate caffeine consumption and bone density and mineral content in women who consume some calcium in their diet.
Caffeine Quick Facts:
- Caffeine is a naturally occurring substance found in the leaves, seeds or fruits of more than 60 plants.
- Coffee and cocoa beans, kola nuts and tea leaves are used to make beverages such as coffee, tea, cola drinks, and chocolate.
- Caffeine is used as a flavor in a variety of beverages.
- Caffeine will not help "sober up" someone who has consumed too much alcohol.
A report from the National Research Council on Diet and Health stated, "evidence linking coffee consumption to the risk of coronary heart disease...is weak and inconsistent."
A 1989 report from the well-respected Framingham Heart Study examined all potential links between caffeine intake and cardiovascular disease, and found no harmful effects from drinking coffee. A later Harvard University study confirmed this report, concluding that caffeine intake does not "appreciably increase the risk of coronary heart disease or stroke."
Caffeine does not cause chronic hypertension or any persistent increase in blood pressure. Some individuals sensitive to caffeine may experience a short-lived rise in blood pressure, usually not lasting more than several hours. Studies show any rise in blood pressure is modest and less than that normally experienced when climbing stairs.
However, individuals with high blood pressure should consult their physician about caffeine intake.